Comparing Functionalities of PVS-Studio and CppCat Static Code Analyzers
- PVS-Studio, CppCat
- Brief functionality comparison
- Detailed functionality comparison
- CppCat, PVS-Studio. Checking a whole solution or single files
- CppCat, PVS-Studio. General purpose diagnostics
- CppCat, PVS-Studio. Automatic analysis of files after compilation (incremental analysis)
- CppCat, PVS-Studio. Support for Visual Studio 2010, 2012, 2013
- PVS-Studio. Specialized diagnostics: 64-bit, micro-optimizations
- PVS-Studio. Team work support
- PVS-Studio. Support for integration into build automation systems, MSBuild, command line version
- PVS-Studio. Support for Visual Studio 2005, 2008
- PVS-Studio. Low-priority general purpose diagnostics
- PVS-Studio. Standalone version
- PVS-Studio. Customer's Specific Requests
- PVS-Studio. Specific functionality, advanced settings
- False positive suppression
Our company develops two code analyzers to check C/C++ projects: PVS-Studio and CppCat. In this article, we are going to tell you about the functional differences between these two tools.
Unfortunately, we are no longer developing or supporting the CppCat static code analyzer. Please read here for details.
The PVS-Studio analyzer was our first software product. We tried to make it as simple and intuitive as possible. But we have failed, though we tried hard.
In the course of its development, PVS-Studio grew to acquire more and more features, which inevitably lead to more complicated interface and settings. Implementation of custom-made diagnostic rules resulted in a number of possible usage modes, which also makes the tool more difficult to handle.
However, we could not drop all that functionality. But the dream of making a simple, lightweight and inexpensive tool remained – thus we created a lightweight analyzer called CppCat.
CppCat provides the basic functionality that allows one to use it in one's everyday work. The analyzer is easy to get started and work with.
We advise that it is the CppCat analyzer that you should start with. And only if you feel you're missing some functionality, then try PVS-Studio. This article is meant to help you understand the functional similarities and differences between CppCat and PVS-Studio.
Brief functionality comparison
Table 1. Functional capabilities of the CppCat and PVS-Studio analyzers.
Detailed functionality comparison
CppCat, PVS-Studio. Checking a whole solution or single files
PVS-Studio and CppCat integrate into the Visual Studio environment and allow you to analyze the source code of applications written in the languages C, C++, C++/CLI, and C++/CX.
You can check both an entire solution and its single files.
PVS-Studio, in addition, allows you to check one project or a set of files selected in the project tree.
CppCat, PVS-Studio. General purpose diagnostics
Both the analyzers provide a set of general purpose diagnostics. These diagnostics enable detection of the following bug patterns:
- functions returning local variables' addresses;
- arithmetic overflows and underflows;
- array overrun;
- double resource freeing;
- dead code;
- violation of "The Law of the Big Two".
- inaccessible code;
- uninitialized variables;
- unused variables;
- incorrect shift operations;
- undefined/unspecified behavior;
- incorrect handling of the HRESULT type;
- incorrect assumptions about a function/class' operation;
- typos (this kind of analysis is implemented especially well);
- virtual destructor missing;
- code formatting not meeting code execution logic;
- errors related to Copy-Paste;
- exception handling errors;
- buffer overflows;
- security vulnerabilities;
- errors related to incorrect assumptions about operation precedence;
- null pointer dereferencing;
- integer division by 0;
- loops executing more/fewer iterations than intended;
- and so on and so forth.
CppCat, PVS-Studio. Automatic analysis of files after compilation (incremental analysis)
The PVS-Studio and CppCat analyzers can run automatically, which mode is enabled by default. Whenever they detect potentially dangerous code, they inform you by a pop-up message.
CppCat, PVS-Studio. Support for Visual Studio 2010, 2012, 2013
PVS-Studio and CppCat can integrate into the Visual Studio 2010, 2012, 2013 environments.
PVS-Studio can also integrate into other environments – we will discuss this a bit further.
For CppCat, we decided to refuse support of Visual Studio 2005 and 2008. The statistics we have gathered with the help of PVS-Studio show that pretty few developers use these IDE versions nowadays. The VS2005 and VS2008 environments are usually used in large, complex projects where moving to the newer versions is troublesome and expensive. To integrate into the development process in this case, CppCat's functionality will most likely be insufficient and you will have to use PVS-Studio.
On the other hand, when working in one of the supported Visual Studio versions, you may specify in CppCat's settings to use the Visual Studio 2008 toolset. It will allow you to analyze Visual Studio 2008 projects in Visual Studio 2013, for example.
PVS-Studio. Specialized diagnostics: 64-bit, micro-optimizations
PVS-Studio offers a few more additional rule sets:
64-bit error diagnostics. This rule set will be useful when developing 64-bit projects handling large memory amounts. Static analysis is an efficient means of searching for many 64-bit errors. It's true that the analyzer produces quite a lot of false positives for this rule set, but the time spent on checking them will be greatly repaid by having your code free of hard-to-catch bugs that would otherwise take you weeks to hunt down.
Microoptimizations. Static code analysis can help you detect fragments where microoptimizations can be applied. This rule set is not a full-blown substitute for profiling tools like Parallel Amplifier, CodeTune – it's just a small supplement to them.
PVS-Studio. Team work support
PVS-Studio provides a number of features that can be useful for team work on large projects.
- Saving the analysis report file in different formats.
- The possibility to specify the path to the project folder in the settings to get relative paths in the log file. It will allow you to open the saved log file on other computers with a different project location.
- The capability to integrate with bug tracking systems.
PVS-Studio. Support for integration into build automation systems, MSBuild, command line version
PVS-Studio supports a number of different usage modes. Which one should be chosen for a particular project depends on the type of the project and the intended results. Since it is impossible to provide for every possible mode, we help our customers integrate PVS-Studio into their development process, set up night builds on the server, and so on. If necessary, we also adapt PVS-Studio for customer needs or develop additional utilities. All these questions are solved individually.
The main modes are:
- Code analysis by PVS-Studio from the command line with the help of Microsoft Visual Studio or Embarcadero RAD Studio (provided that you have at hand vcproj/vcxproj project files for devenv.exe or cbproj project files for bds.exe);
- Direct integration of the analyzer into build automation systems (when there are no project files .vcproj/.vcxproj/.cbproj available);
- Direct integration into MSBuild's build process and the mode when MSBuild is integrated into the Visual Studio IDE.
- Using PVS-Studio together with continuous integration systems.
PVS-Studio. Support for Visual Studio 2005, 2008
PVS-Studio supports integration into Visual Studio 2005 and 2008.
PVS-Studio. Low-priority general purpose diagnostics
PVS-Studio's diagnostics are grouped into 3 categories according to their severity level. The third level contains diagnostics that produce too many false positives or detect some subtle and insignificant defects in code. These diagnostics are turned off in PVS-Studio by default, but you may turn them on if necessary. The CppCat analyzer doesn't have these diagnostics at all.
PVS-Studio. Standalone version
PVS-Studio Standalone combines 3 main functions:
- Viewing analysis results (the .plog file) saved on another computer without having to run the Visual Studio IDE.
- Compilation monitoring system. The analyzer monitors compiler calls and collects all the necessary information for further analysis. It enables you to check projects compiled by any build system. The monitoring process can be launched both manually and from a batch file.
PVS-Studio. Customer's Specific Requests
In PVS-Studio, we implement diagnostics irrelevant for most developers but urgent for some of our customers. New diagnostics to be added are discussed and implemented individually.
PVS-Studio. Specific functionality, advanced settings
PVS-Studio provides more advanced settings than CppCat. Here are some of them:
- Control over preprocessor calls. By default, both CppCat and PVS-Studio will first try to call Clang to generate preprocessed files. If it fails, CL.exe (Visual C++) is then launched. In PVS-Studio, you may specify to use either Clang or CL.
- You may choose to check only those files that have changed over a certain time period.
- Specifying the number of threads for parallel analysis.
- Turning off diagnostics individually.
- Opening the documentation in Russian or English.
- and so on.
False positive suppression
The table says nothing about the functionality of false positive suppression. False positive handling mechanisms are available both in PVS-Studio and CppCat, but they use different approaches. That's why we decided to discuss this subject separately.
CppCat and PVS-Studio use different approaches. In CppCat, the user sees a fixed list of warnings. Having no choice here is not a disadvantage as it may seem at first. We have selected the diagnostics with a considerable ratio of useful messages to false positives. Why it is so important is discussed here (see the answer to the question "I have analyzed my code and found nothing. Why?").
PVS-Studio generates numbers and numbers of messages, for it includes custom-made diagnostics, 64-bit diagnostics producing lots of false positives, and so on. That's why PVS-Studio offers the mechanism of turning single diagnostics or their groups on/off. At the same time, we don't think this mechanism to be an advantage – it's just that we are forced to implement it.
PVS-Studio allows you to:
- turn on/off single diagnostics;
- turn on/off warnings of different levels;
- turn on/off warnings marked as false positives.
Now to the question of suppressing single false positives.
Both the tools offer the following mechanisms to eliminate false positives:
- suppressing a false positive in a particular line by a comment of the "//-Vxxx" pattern;
- suppressing false positives in certain macros;
- suppressing false positives in lines containing a certain error pattern;
- suppressing warnings for particular folders or files.
PVS-Studio also provides the following additional mechanisms:
- excluding files from analysis by mask;
- excluding diagnostic messages by error description text.
All these mechanisms are described in detail in the documentation.